BRAVIITHI ® is a sanskrit word which means “prediction”. BRAVIITHI ®’s mission is to detect diabetic retinopathy at an early stage, preventing the vision loss. Our software suite OKIO is named after “Occhio”, (eye in Italian).

OKIO is a powerful tool that makes use of innate characteristics of different features in the retina pre and post disease onset. We modelled them accordingly using shape, size, color, intensity, density, orientation and compactness attributes.

OKIO not only facilitates early diagnosis, but also provides sufficient information in discriminating artifacts, self-evaluating its predictions. We believe our tool fits these criteria and can have a significant impact on diabetic retinopathy disease handling standards globally.

In addition, OKIO has the capability of performing image quality assessment, thereby advising end-users of potential artifacts present in the image. OKIO suite is designed using simple and powerful mathematical concepts in image analysis, which preserve the innate knowledge source of the retinopathy specialization domain.


Supero and Infero Temporal Vessels

Identification of macula

Detection of Hard Exudates, Hemorrhages and Cotton Wool Spots

Green Circles: Hard Exudates – Blue Circles: Hemorrhages – Lavender Circles: Cotton Wool Spots

Extracted Vasculature, Trimmed Frame

Optic Disc Identified Contour

Detection of Hard Exudates and Hemorrhages

Green Circles: Hard Exudates – Blue Circles: Hemorrhages

Image Credits:

Images 1 to 5:

a) Kindly provided by the LaTIM laboratory (see and the Messidor program partners (see

G. Quellec, M. Lamard, P.-M. Josselin, G. Cazuguel, B. Cochener, C. Roux. Optimal Wavelet Transform for the Detection of Microaneurysms in Retina Photographs. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 2008;27(9):1230-1241

Decencière, E., Zhang, X., Cazuguel, G., Laÿ, B., Cochener, B., Trone, C., … &Charton, B. (2014). Feedback on a publicly distributed image database: the Messidor database. Image Analysis and Stereology, 33(3), 231-234.

b) French Ministry of Research and Defense TECHNO-VISION program.

Images 6 and 7:

a) Dr. G R Reddy eye care center, Tadepalligudem, Andhra Pradesh INDIA