Here are some scientific articles about diabetic RETINOPATHY that we recommend

Pathophysiology of Diabetic Retinopathy

Joanna M. Tarr, Kirti Kaul, Mohit Chopra, Eva M. Kohner, and Rakesh Chibber

Diabetes is now regarded as an epidemic, with the population of patients expected to rise to 380 million by 2025. Tragically, this will lead to approximately 4 million people around the world losing their sight from diabetic retinopathy, the leading cause of blindness in patients aged 20 to 74 years. The risk of development and progression of diabetic retinopathy is closely associated with the type and duration of diabetes, blood glucose, blood pressure, and possibly lipids. Although landmark cross-sectional studies have confirmed the strong relationship between chronic hyperglycaemia and the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, the underlying mechanism of how hyperglycaemia causes retinal microvascular damage remains unclear. Continued research worldwide has focussed on understanding the pathogenic mechanisms with the ultimate goal to prevent DR. The aim of this paper is to introduce the multiple interconnecting biochemical pathways that have been proposed and tested as key contributors in the development of DR, namely, increased polyol pathway, activation of protein kinase C (PKC), increased expression of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), haemodynamic changes, accelerated formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), oxidative stress, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), and subclinical inflammation and capillary occlusion. New pharmacological therapies based on some of these underlying pathogenic mechanisms are also discussed.

Diabetic retinopathy--biomolecules and multiple pathophysiology

Ahsan H1.

One of the major complications in patients with diabetes is diabetic retinopathy (DR), a leading cause of blindness worldwide. It causes visual impairment and finally blindness, a result of long-term accumulated damage to the small blood vessels in the retina. It takes several years before any clinical symptoms of retinopathy appear in diabetic patients. Consequently, glycemic control, blood pressure and lipid-lowering therapy have all shown benefits in reducing the incidence and progression of DR. A number of hyperglycemia-induced metabolic stresses have been implicated in the pathophysiology of DR. The microvasculature of the retina responds to hyperglycemia through a number of biochemical changes, including the activation of protein kinase C (PKC), increased advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) formation, polyol pathway and oxidative stress. There is an accumulating body of evidence indicating that inflammation and neurodegeneration play an important role in the pathogenesis of DR.

Recent advances in understanding the biochemical and molecular mechanism of diabetic retinopathy

Wan TT1, Li XF1, Sun YM2, Li YB1, Su Y3.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes and remains a major cause of preventable blindness among adults at working age. DR involves an abnormal pathology of major retinal cells, including retinal pigment epithelium, microaneurysms, inter-retinal oedema, haemorrhage, exudates (hard exudates) and intraocular neovascularization. Hyperglycemia is the driving force for the development of diabetic retinopathy. The exact cause of diabetic nephropathy is unknown, but various postulated mechanisms are: hyperglycemia, advanced glycosylation products, activation of cytokines. In this review article, we have discussed a number of diabetes-induced metabolites such as glucose, advanced glycation end products, protein kinase C and oxidative stress and other related factors that are implicated in the pathophysiology of the DR. An understanding of the biochemical and molecular changes especially early in the DR may lead to new and effective therapies towards prevention and amelioration of DR.

World leaders join new drive to beat noncommunicable diseases

WHO is announcing today a new high-level commission, comprised of heads of state and ministers, leaders in health and development and entrepreneurs. The group will propose bold and innovative solutions to accelerate prevention and control of the leading killers on the planet – noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) like heart and lung disease, cancers, and diabetes.